With a Lightning a USB-C headphone you plug the headphone directly into the Lightning port (on Apple devices) or USB-C port (on Android devices). A standard headphone plug is an analog connection while this creates a direct digital connection. The headphones are powered by your phone (they use only a little bit of battery power) and have an integrated DAC (digital-to-analog converter) that's usually superior to the DAC in your phone.
Over-ear and on-ear headphones effectively block out outside sounds, allowing you to hear your music or whatever else you're listening to crisply and without distraction. Over-ear headphones are sometimes known as full-size headphones because they completely envelop the wearer's ear. This results in what's known as passive noise reduction, which makes these some of the most-preferred headphones available. The only drawback is that your ears and the skin around your ears can get warm and sweaty. These are usually the heaviest type of headphones.